S. album occurs from coastal dry forests up to 700 metres (2,300 ft) elevation. Stretch MarksSource: Julia Lawless, The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Updated Edition) (London: Harper Thorsons, 2014), 179-180. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of sandalwood oil for its antibacterial effects. Santalum album is considered in Indian to be a practical agroforestry species. It should be planted in good sunlight and does not require a lot of water. Scientific Name : Santalum album: Common Names : Sudu Hadun, White Sandalwood tree, Sandal Treatment (5% in acetone, w/v) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-(DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-promoted skin papillomas and TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in CD1 mice significantly decreased papilloma incidence by 67% and TPA-induced ODC activity by 70%.5, Daily oral feedings of sandalwood oil to adult male Swiss albino mice for 10 and 20 days led to a dose-dependent increase on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and acid soluble sulfhydryl (SH) levels. In India, the essential oil, emulsion, or paste of sandalwood is used in the treatment of inflammatory and eruptive skin diseases.5 The oil has been used in Ayurvedic medicinal system as a demulcent, diuretic, and mild stimulant.1 The leaves and bark of Santalum have been used by early Hawaiians to treat dandruff, lice, dermatitis, and sexually transmitted diseases.6 Sandalwood oil has also demonstrated repellency against the crop pest, Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite), with santalol suggested as the effective component.7, The essential oil of sandalwood is obtained from the heartwood of the tree.8 The light yellow, volatile oil contains about 90% santalols with 35% to 49% being alpha-santalol, 14% to 33% beta-santalol, 0% to 5% alpha-trans-bergamotol, and 1% to 7% epi-beta-santalol.9 The santalols are responsible for the pleasant odor of sandalwood, although 2-furfuryl pyrrole may also contribute an effect.2, The seeds yield about 50% of a viscid, dark red, fixed oil containing stearolic acid and santalbic acid. The decline is blamed on government policy and over-exploitation, and moves have been made to encourage planters to grow the trees again. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It has use as wood and oil in religious practices. PART USED Heartwood SYNONYMS Santalum album L. COMMON NAMES Indian Sandalwood, East Indian Sandalwood EXTRACTION METHOD Steam Distilled Essential Oil ORIGIN India Indian sandalwood. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. Laryngitis 6. Santalum album. Santalaceae – Sandalwood family. It also inhibits cell proliferation through induction of G2/M phase arrest.8, Sandalwood oil may have chemoprophylactic effects on skin papillomas. The leaves are thin, opposite and ovate to lanceolate in shape. The oil is rarely used medicinally today, but its widespread use as a popular fragrance continues. This is the first report of the volatile composition of the pericarps of any Santalum species. Bronchitis 2. The long maturation period and difficulty in cultivation have restricted extensive planting. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Last modified. Harvest of the tree involves several curing and processing stages, also adding to the commercial value. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. It also features as a construction material in temples and elsewhere. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, the enhancement of GST activity and acid-soluble SH levels may suggest a possible chemoprophylactic action on carcinogenesis.17, Similarly, alpha-santalol was found in a dose-response study to decrease DMBA-TPA–induced skin tumor incidence and multiplicity, ODC activity, and DNA synthesis in CD-1 mice. It normally grows in sandy or well drained stony red soils, but a wide range of soil types are inhabited. Sandalwood oil has been reported to have diuretic and urinary antiseptic properties, but clinical trial data are lacking. In the southern Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu all trees of greater than a specified girth were the property of the state until 2001/2. The nomenclature for other "sandalwoods" and the taxonomy of the genus are derived from this species' historical and widespread use. Annual production fell from a high of 4,000 tonnes in the early 1970s, to fewer than 300 tonnes in 2011. , The native species, Santalum spicatum is more common and extensively grown in Western Australia, but as of 2020[update] there are two commercial Indian sandalwood plantations in full operation based in Kununurra, in the far north of Western Australia: Quintis (formerly Tropical Forestry Services), which in 2017 controlled around 80 per cent of the world's supply of Indian sandalwood, and Santanol, who follow ethical and sustainable practices.  The name, Santalum ovatum, used by Robert Brown in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (1810) was described as a synonym of this species by Alex George in 1984. Santalum L. – sandalwood. [family SANTALACEAE] (stored under name); Verified by Hans Ulrich Stauffer, Santalum album L. [family SANTALACEAE] Verified by D. T. Harbaugh, Related name Santalum album Comes up naturally and protected tree. Santalum album is the scientific name of sandalwood. Soil type: S. album grows in a wide range of soils but is most common in sandy or rocky red soil zones. Santalum album : Source: Santalales of North America Update, database (version 2011) Acquired: 2011 : Notes: Updated for ITIS by the Flora of North America Expertise Network, in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Santalum album : Source: The PLANTS Database, database (version 4.0.4) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: The tree starts to flower after 7 years. Sandalwood is now cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Northern Australia. It is native to southern India and Southeast Asia. Bark is tight, dark brown, reddish, dark grey or nearly black, smooth in young trees, rough with deep vertical cracks in older trees, red inside. He reported daily use of sandalwood paste on the lesions for 8 years, and a patch test with sandalwood was positive. Another common tree in Mysore city is Magnolia champaka.. Infact many varieties are seen if you walk on the road during the flowering season. Its is the world s most popular and costliest wood and widely known as Chandanam, Srigandham in south India and Chandan in North. ‘Chandana’ the Sanskrit name ascribed to Santalum album L. was known and used in India from the earliest historic times and is frequently mentioned in the ancient Sanskrit writings, some of which dated before Christian era. The oil should not be ingested internally in its natural state. The specific epithet ellipticum is from the Latin ellipticus, oblong with rounded ends, in reference the shape of the leaves of this species. The ISO Standard for the accepted characteristics of this essential oil is ISO 3518:2002. Fruit is produced after three years, viable seeds after five. The extensive removal of S. album over the past century led to increased vulnerability to extinction. Scientific Name (s): Santalum album L. Common Name (s): East Indian sandalwood oil, Sandalwood, Santal oil, White or yellow sandalwood oil, White saunders oil. Intraperitoneal administration of alpha- and beta-santalols in mice increased hexobarbital-induced sleeping time. This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. sandalwood tree scientific name: Santalum album In Indian tradition, Sandalwood trees are a special place and it used from cradle to cremation. Scientific Name(s): Santalum album L.Common Name(s): East Indian sandalwood oil, Sandalwood, Santal oil, White or yellow sandalwood oil, White saunders oil. The height of the evergreen tree is between 4 and 9 metres. The reddish or brown bark can be almost black and is smooth in young trees, becoming cracked with a red reveal. The effect was dose dependent and the oil was not virucidal.12 Another in vitro study found sandalwood oil to exert inhibitory activity against HSV-2 (IC50 of 0.0015%).13, Sandalwood oil (along with the essential oils thyme, and hyssop) was found to exert virucidal activity against acyclovir-sensitive and resistant strains of HSV-1. Santalum spicatum Australian sandalwood is also used in aromatherapy as and ecological alternative to the endangered Santalum album. -Botanical name is Santalum album, as I know. The outer part of the tree, the sapwood, is unscented. SYNONYMS Santalum album L. COMMON NAMES Indian Sandalwood, East Indian Sandalwood EXTRACTION METHOD Steam Distilled Essential Oil ORIGIN India NOTE CLASSIFICATION Base Note, Excellent Fixative Some isolates of Santalum album were found to be active against Helicobacter pylori.15 S. album was also found to inhibit Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the aqueous leaf extract showing a higher inhibition zone than with the stem extract.6, Beta-santalol was found to exert antiviral activity against influenza A/HK (H3N2), with a suggested mechanism of inhibition in late viral RNA synthesis.16. Sensitive Skin 10. It is also used in Cosmetics, Pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, soap industry, and perfumery so, the commercial value of … If this tree comes up in any house one has to inform the Forest department and one cannot cut this tree. The oil has mainly been used as a fragrance enhancer. , The harvesting of sandalwood is preferred to be of trees that are advanced in age. sandalwood. The tree is variable in habit, usually upright to sprawling, and may intertwine with other species. Indigenous to India and Indonesia, sandalwood is an evergreen tree that grows to 8 to 12 m in height and 2.5 m in girth.1 The bark is smooth and gray-brown in color, and the small flowers have numerous short stalks. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Tertiary resources document the oil as having diuretic and urinary antiseptic properties.11, Sandalwood oil inhibited the replication of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) 1 and 2, with inhibition was more pronounced against HSV-1. The plant is long-lived, but harvest is only viable after many years. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Saleable wood can, however, be of trees as young as seven years. Certain cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. It is native to southern India and Southeast Asia. Santalum album is a small evergreen tree that grows to 4 m and can grow to a height of 20 m; girth of up to 2.4 m, with slender drooping branchlets. This habitat has a temperature range from 0 to 38 °C (100 °F) and annual rainfall between 500 millimetres (20 in) and 3,000 millimetres (120 in). Santalum album and over 1000 other quality seeds for sale. Depression 4. To preserve this vulnerable resource from over-exploitation, legislation protects the species, and cultivation is researched and developed. An individual will form a non-obligate relationship with a number of other plants. Alpha-santalol is believed to exert its chemopreventive effects, particularly against skin cancer, through the induction of apoptosis and tumor suppressor protein. There have been reports of kidney damage with prolonged use.. It is yellow-brown in color, hard with an oily texture and due to its durability, is the perfect material for carving. Due to its scarcity, sandalwood is not allowed to be cut or harvested by individuals. Santalum ellipticum. Glabrous surface is shiny and bright green, with a glaucous pale reverse.  It is threatened by over-exploitation and degradation to habitat through altered land use, fire (to which this species is extremely sensitive), Spike disease, agriculture, and land-clearing are the factors of most concern. Subordinate Taxa. Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and is the most commonly known source of sandalwood. Preferred Common Name. Sandalwood is an evergreen tree native to India and Indonesia and grows to 8 to 12 m in height and 2.5 In a study of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats, S. album petroleum ether fraction 10 mcg/kg given twice daily for 60 days was associated with a reduction in blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c. This is most common in Mysore city and surroundings. Sandalwood oil should be dosed in a resistant coating that protects against gastric secretions. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Sandal (Santalum album L.) conservation in southern India: A review of policies and their impacts", "The origin and diffusion of betel chewing: a synthesis of evidence from South Asia, Southeast Asia and beyond", http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/newslett/ncnl2-54.htm, Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden - Plants: Sandalwood, Santalum spicatum, "Time to lift restrictions on planting sandalwood? Species. Up to 300 species (including its own) can host the tree's development - supplying macronutrients phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, and shade - especially during early phases of development. Common names The oil should not be ingested internally in its natural state.1, 25, Sandalwood oil can cause dermatitis in sensitive persons, although it is generally considered to be nonirritating to human skin.2, 11, 26 A case report described a 65-year-old man with a scaly, hyperpigmented plaque on his forehead and fissuring of his fingers (markedly on the thumb and index finger). The specific epithet freycinetianum is named in honor of Captain Loius de Freycinet (1779-1840), commander of the French exploration on board of which was Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupre, the first Western botanist to come to the Hawaiian Islands. They may live to one hundred years of age. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. Botanical Name: Santalum album Product CoExtract: SDW/0181 HSN CoExtract: 3301.29.90 CAS Number: 8006-87-9; 84787-70-2 INCI Name: Santalum Album (Sandalwood) Co2 Oil. Sandalwood oil can cause dermatitis, although it is generally considered to be nonirritating to human skin. SANDALWOOD essential oil, scientifically known as Santalum Album, The essential oil of sandalwood is extracted through steam distillation of wood from matured sandalwood trees which are 40-80 years old, although 80 years is preferred. Santalum album L. Genbank common name: white sandalwood NCBI BLAST name: eudicots Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 1 …  The epithet album refers to the "white" of the heartwood. Last updated on Jul 20, 2020. turmeric, saw palmetto, Ginkgo Biloba, garlic, echinacea. Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. Santalum ellipticum, known as Hawaiian sandalwood ( lliahi aloe ), is also used and deemed of high quality. A superior effect was noted with a 5% application of alpha-santalol as opposed to 1.25% and 2.5%. Santalum album. Bark is tight, dark brown, reddish, dark grey or These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. The sapwood is white or yellow in color and is used to make turnery items. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and the traditional source of sandalwood oil. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. Oh! Santalum album Taxonomy ID: 35974 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid35974) current name. For the treatment of urological problems, a dose of 1 to 1.5 g daily is recommended for no more than 6 weeks. Santalum L. – sandalwood. However, beta-santalol was found to decrease acetic acid-induced writhing more effectively than alpha-santalol.21, Though not statistically significant, leg and foot massage with sandalwood oil reduced anxiety in patients.22 Topical administration of sandalwood oil produced "harmonizing" effects (ie, a reduction in the level of autonomic nervous system arousal but no behavioral level deactivation) in healthy volunteers, whereas alpha-santalol had relaxing/sedative effects.23 Inhalational sandalwood essential oil and alpha-santalol affected various physiological parameters and self-ratings of arousal in humans.24, For the treatment of urological problems, a dose of 1 to 1.5 g daily is recommended for no more than 6 weeks. Oily Skin 8. Additionally, different in vitro and in vivo parts of the plant have been shown to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, shikimic acid, etc. The outer part of the tree, the sapwood, is unscented. The species is Kautilya’s Arthashastra (320 B.C.) However, the high value of the species has caused over-exploitation, to the point where the wild population is vulnerable to extinction.  The Indian government has placed a ban on the export of the timber.. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. 22 November 2019. 1. S. album has been the primary source of sandalwood and the derived oil. Genus. It may propagate itself through wood suckering during its early development, establishing small stands. Santalum album L. is indigenous to the tropical belt of the peninsular India, eastern Indonesia and northern Australia.  The main distribution is in the drier tropical regions of India and the Indonesian islands of Timor and Sumba. Additionally, alpha-santalol in 2.5% and 5% concentrations as pretreatment reduced ultraviolet B UVB-initiated skin tumor development.8, Alpha-santalol activated caspase-3 activity, causing apoptosis in androgen-dependant and -independent human prostate cancer cells. In addition, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were reduced, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased.20. Santalum album is included in the family Santalaceae, and is commonly known as white or East Indian sandalwood. Datasheet Type (s) Host Plant. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Hawaiian Names: Lāʻau ʻala literally means "sweet wood" or "fragrant wood." These seeds are distributed by birds. Indian Sandalwood Santalum Album Chandan Chandanam Srigandha Tree Seeds Santalum album or Indian sandalwood is a small tropical tree, the most commonly known source of sandalwood. The wood has been valued in carving because of its dense character.2, 3, 4, In traditional medicine, sandalwood oil has been used as an antiseptic and astringent, and for the treatment of headache, stomachache, and urogenital disorders. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. The entire plant is removed rather than cut to the base, as in coppiced species. The … The santalols and related compounds have been identified in the blood of mice that inhaled sandalwood fumes under experimental conditions, indicating that systemic absorption of these compounds can occur.29. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. The plant parasitises the roots of other tree species, with a haustorium adaptation on its own roots, but without major detriment to its hosts. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of sandalwood oil for cardio-metabolic risk. Available for Android and iOS devices. Sandalwood tree, though, is a native of India and the southern rather the southeast region of Asia. Sandalwood oil has a warm, woody odor and is commonly used as a fragrance in incense, cosmetics, perfumes, and soaps.1 It also is used as a flavoring for foods and beverages. The height of the evergreen tree is between 4 and 9 metres. Evergreen trees, to 10 m high, bark surface dark grey to nearly black, rough with short vertical cracks. The generic name Santalum is derived from santalon, the Greek name for sandalwood. S. album can grow up to 9.1 metres (30 ft) vertically. The State grants specific permission to officials who then can cut down the tree and sell its wood.
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