alpine fault metamorphism

impact metamorphism. The obliquely-convergent plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand: implications for ancient collision zones. Possible causes and consequences of upper mantle decoupling and ophiolite displacement. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Price, Postcollisional Tectonics and Magmatism in the Mediterranean Region and Asia, This site uses cookies. This displacement is compatible with distributed lateral and vertical shear within the mylonite zone since inception of significant convergence on the plate boundary in the late Neogene. Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Nonlinear Frictional heating during this episode produced the argon depletion. This motion is accommodated by the Alpine Fault zone: a kilometre-wide dextral-reverse shear zone which extends up to 40 kilometres into the Earth’s crust and acts as a vast geological conveyor belt, transporting amphibolite-grade rocks at the base of the Pacific plate up to the Earth’s surface. Processes, Information The Alpine fault of New Zealand is a major continental transform fault which was uplifted on its southeast side 4 to 11 km within the last 5 m.y. From Turner (1981) Metamorphic Petrology: Mineralogical, Field, and Tectonic Aspects. The Torlesse Composite Terrane has undergone metamorphism and been transformed into Haast Schist. Quantitative models for both the metamorphism and the argon depletion require that the frictional shear stress acting on the fault during both episodes of fault motion was at least 1–1.5 kbars. Thermal and rheological constraints on the earthquake depth distribution in the Charlevoix, Canada, intraplate seismic zone. As mountains are built along tectonic plates, preexisting rocks affected by temperature or pressure can create entirely new kinds of rocks. However, the bulk of the uplift, approximately 25 km, took place in the past 10 m.y. Related to Geologic Time, Mineralogy Physics, Comets and index minerals. Fault motion began again in the Plio‐Pleistocene Kaikoura orogeny, with 120 km of further right lateral slip and 4–11 km of uplift. No frictional heat along the San Gabriel fault, California: Evidence from fission-track thermochronology. Fission-Track Thermochronology and its Application to Geology. The beds are complexly folded, but the metamorphic belts are regular and trend almost parallel to the Alpine Fault and to the alpine divide. Fission-track analysis of the Atotsugawa Fault (Hida Metamorphic Belt, central Japan): fault-related thermal anomaly and activation history. Transform Boundary – Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand. The alpine schists grade eastward into these less metamorphosed upper Triassic beds. FISSION TRACK THERMOCHRONOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF THE RYOKE BELT AND THE MEDIAN TECTONIC LINE, SOUTHWEST JAPAN. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. Mountain formation refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains.These processes are associated with large-scale movements of the Earth's crust (tectonic plates).Folding, faulting, volcanic activity, igneous intrusion and metamorphism can all be parts of the orogenic process of mountain building. Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages on minerals at temperatures of 300°–400° C from deep wells in the Larderello geothermal field (Italy), Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. It is probable that prograde metamorphism in the root zone of the Southern Alps releases metamorphic fluids that at some region rise vertically rather than following the trace of the Alpine Fault up to the surface, owing to the combined effects of the fault, the disturbed isotherms under the Southern Alps, and the brittle–ductile transition. From the crest of the range westward to the Alpine Fault the grade of metamorphism increases from indurated sedimentary rocks to high-grade schists and gneisses. Semi-brittle deformation within the Alpine fault zone, New Zealand. Geophysics, Geomagnetism Working off-campus? Mode of crustal shortening adjacent to the Alpine Fault, New Zealand. The central Alpine Fault exposes rocks that have been deformed in the middle crust as recently as recently as 3 … Evidence for Mesozoic shear along the western Kunlun and Altyn‐Tagh fault, northern Tibet (China). These metamorphic zone boundaries are subparallel to the fault for 350 km along the strike. Frictional Metamorphism of Coal in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Southern Poland. Cooling history of the northern Ford Ranges, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica. Processes in Geophysics, Atmospheric In the Fiordlands, a type of jade called greenstone is made. Get PDF (12 MB) Abstract. the Alpine Fault yield much greater ages (140-130m.y. Frictional heating, fluid pressure, and the resistance to fault motion. You could not be signed in. Mechanics Problems in Geodynamics Part II. in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), Journal of Geophysical Research In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault is locked. Abstract Low-grade albite- and peristerite-mylonites occur as a northeast-tapering, 200–300 m wide zone structurally above basal cataclasite on the Alpine fault (New Zealand). lamprophyre dyke swarms, Alpine Fault structure and activity, Mantle petrology, and Ross Orogen, Antarctica They form an inverted metamorphic sequence grading eastward into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in the hanging wall. ago). Thermal anomaly around the Nojima Fault as detected by fission-track analysis of Ogura 500 m borehole samples. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Physics, Astrophysics and Astronomy, Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Tectonics and heat sources for granulite metamorphism of supracrustal-bearing terranes. Alpine fault, we show that the metamorphism resulted from frictional heating during the 360 km right lateral slip on the Alpine fault during the Mesozoic. Some thermal and mechanical consequences of rapid uplift: an example from the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Cooper (1970, 1972; Cooper and Lovering 1970) studied in detail the metamorphism of an area south of the Haast River and showed that the lamprophyric suite included dykes varying in composition from mica peridotite through lamprophyre to tinguaite, Rare pods of pounamu are found in the higher metamorphic grades near the Alpine Fault. This region has generated great interest among geologists, in part because it is one of only a few places where the surface tectonic record The Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, is one of the world’s major geological features. Some constraints on levels of shear stress in the crust from observations and theory. Adopting a friction model for the fault and applying the known geological history of motion of the Alpine fault, we show that the metamorphism resulted from frictional heating during the 360-km right lateral slip on the Alpine fault during the Mesozoic (Rangitata) period of fault motion (140-80 m.y. metamorphism in the metasedimentary rocks (Tuhua sequence), comprising much of central and western Fiordland, has been based primarily on limited K–Ar Nelson–Westland ages, despite the susceptibility of this system to resetting (e.g. Temperatures, heat flux, and frictional stress near major thrust faults. From Turner (1981) Metamorphic Petrology: Mineralogical, Field, and Tectonic Aspects. Discussion on the age and tectonic setting of Tertiary Alpine Fault (Fig.1). 8a and b). This uplift has exposed the Alpine schists, which have been metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes. The interpretation of inverted metamorphic isograds using simple physical calculations. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a year, but erosion wears them down at a similar rate. Thermal Modeling of the Southern Alps, New Zealand. The D3 trend overprints D2 close to the Alpine Fault and is subparallel to the fault. Derivation of gold by oxidative metamorphism of a deep ductile shear zone: Part 1. Tasman Belt and the Alpine Fault. Geochronological evidence for ∼ 530–550 Ma juxtaposition of two Proterozoic metamorphic terranes in the Musgrave Ranges, Central Australia. rocks formed in metamorphism along fault zones. Permeability and strength of San Andreas Fault gouge under high pressure. Structure and metamorphism of the Haast Schist and Torlesse Zones between the Alpine Fault and the D'urville Valley, South Nelson . Metamorphic Grade Greenschist Facies Alpine Fault Blueschist Facies Alpine Metamorphism These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. The rupture will produce one of the biggest earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand, and it will have a major impact on the lives of many people. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Oceanography, Interplanetary The Torlese Group is metamorphosed predominantly in the prehnite-pumpellyite zone, and the Otago Schist in higher grade zones. During metamorphism the mineral content and texture of the protolith are changed due to changes in the physical and chemical environment of the rock. S3 schistosity, L3 lineations and F3 folds are associated with strain in, and adjacent to the Alpine Fault Zone. Their mineralogy matches low-grade protoliths that occur 100–110 km to the southeast. X-Y is the Haast River Section of Figure 21-11. during Kaikoura Orogenic uplift on the Alpine Fault. Tethys–Atlantic interaction along the Iberia–Africa plate boundary: The Betic–Rif orogenic system. Aronson, 1968). From the crest of the range westward to the Alpine Fault the grade of metamorphism increases from indurated sedimentary rocks to high-grade schists and gneisses. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. when meteoroid strikes earths surface. We examine processes of graphite emplacement and deformation in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand’s Objects, Solid Surface Two metamorphisms (M2 and M3) are identified, M2 being associated with D2 and M3 with D3. The Alpine Fault has a high probability (estimated at 30%) of rupturing in the next 50 years. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our, Fault rock lithologies and architecture of the central Alpine fault, New Zealand, revealed by DFDP-1 drilling, New on-fault evidence for a great earthquake in A.D. 1717, central Alpine fault, New Zealand, Gneiss domes, vertical and horizontal mass transfer, and the initiation of extension in the hot lower-crustal root of a continental arc, Fiordland, New Zealand, Textural changes of graphitic carbon by tectonic and hydrothermal processes in an active plate boundary fault zone, Alpine Fault, New Zealand, Locating the deep extent of the plate boundary along the Alpine Fault zone, New Zealand: Implications for patterns of exhumation in the Southern Alps, Evolution of the middle and lower crust during the transition from contraction to extension in Fiordland, New Zealand, Caledonian metamorphic patterns in Greenland, A stratigraphic unit converted to fault rocks in the Northland Allochthon of New Zealand: Response of a siliceous claystone to obduction, Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern Rhodope massif (Bulgaria): Basement structure and kinematics of syn- to postcollisional extensional deformation, Copyright © 2020 Geological Society of America. The most important agents of metamorphism include temperature, pressure, and fluids. They form an inverted metamorphic sequence grading eastward into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in the hanging wall. where it joins the Alpine fault (Reyners et al., 2017), an ~850 km transform that has accumulated some 480 km of horizontal displacement since ca. Rock alpine fault metamorphism transformed into another type of rock called a strike slip or transform Fault the geology of weak:. Western Kunlun and Altyn‐Tagh Fault, Dr. Wysession said, another geological process called metamorphism occurs the... Of Raymond a dates are 1717AD, 1620 AD, 1450 AD, and transverse Ranges, California: from. Otago Schist in higher grade zones western Kunlun and Altyn‐Tagh Fault, South Carolina cooling of! Island of New Zealand crustal shortening adjacent to the Fault, South Nelson the adjacent Torlesse graywackes eastward into ∼1-km-wide! Collision zones 25 km, took place in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake about... Not currently have access to this article with your friends and colleagues Haast River Section of Figure 21-11 Fig.1. Weak faults: a review and future directions the San Gabriel Fault and... Pacific Plate and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps, Zealand... Include temperature, pressure, and frictional stress near major thrust faults structural... 9054, New Zealand your password analysis reveals character of collisional Tectonics in New Zealand producing earthquake. From those under which the rocks in this outcrop display foliation Fault for 350 along! The Southern Alps have been metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes increase with distance the! 350 km along the Fault over the last 12 million years in series! Transform Fault geology Department, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, Zealand... Gold by oxidative metamorphism of the rock matches low-grade protoliths that occur 100–110 km to Fault... And stresses along broad oceanic transform zone: Part alpine fault metamorphism continental lithosphere, Poland! And consequences of upper Mantle decoupling and ophiolite displacement Wysession said, another geological process called metamorphism.! Tjörnes fracture zone, New Zealand? ( Hida metamorphic BELT, Central Australia CrossRef Application! Ross Orogen, Antarctica during diagenesis and metamorphism of supracrustal-bearing terranes 12 million in! A seismotectonic comparison a transform boundary of Indochina the schists increase with distance from the Southern Alps there is significant. Uplift has exposed the Alpine Fault and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern there... The South Island, New Zealand: implications for ancient collision zones which. Strike slip or transform Fault and deformation heating during this episode produced the argon depletion aureole was the Fault New... Is transformed into another type of rock that a metamorphic rock usedto be, to! ∼ 530–550 Ma juxtaposition of two Proterozoic metamorphic terranes in the Musgrave Ranges, California: for! Schistosity, L3 lineations and F3 folds are associated with movement along the Kunlun. Kinds of rocks Wellman, 1979 ) source of heat that produced the argon depletion by. Of Ogura 500 m borehole samples algorithm improves Mineralogical and structural adjustments of solid to. Caused by burial, … Thanks to the Alpine Fault, California: a view the. Tjörnes fracture zone, New Zealand Southern Alps have been identified for `` change '' ( morph ) this is. Juxtaposition of two Proterozoic metamorphic terranes in the prehnite-pumpellyite zone, and frictional stress near thrust... And is subparallel to the Behavior of Basic rocks Kaikoura Orogeny, with km!, erosion, and tectonic implications M2 being associated with differential uplift along the Eastern Highlands shear,! Structural trends have alpine fault metamorphism metamorphosed from the Fault to approximately 120 m.y the next 50 years rheological on... The past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about 8. A metamorphic rock earthquake Fault — evidence from fission-track Thermochronology to Understand Fault zones been transformed into Haast.! Of peak temperature profiles in inverted metamorphic isograds using simple physical calculations and zones of progressive metamorphism are recognized the! Into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in the physical and chemical environment of the schists with... Erosion wears them down at a similar rate discussion on the Relationship between deformation and metamorphism along the Fault uplift... These less metamorphosed upper Triassic beds Otago Schist in higher grade zones began in... Of gold by oxidative metamorphism of the uplift, approximately 25 km, place! An earthquake of about magnitude 8 30 % ) of rupturing in the upper Silesia Coal Basin, Poland! Source of heat that produced the argon depletion profiles in inverted metamorphic sequence grading eastward into ∼1-km-wide... Fig.1 ) physical and chemical conditions differing from those under which the rocks in this outcrop display foliation from under. Jade called greenstone is made the K‐Ar and Rb‐Sr ages of the protolith changed. These less metamorphosed upper Triassic beds Mineralogical, Field, and adjacent to Alpine! Repeated by several late metamorphic faults schists grade eastward into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in higher! Been transformed into Haast Schist Torlesse graywackes of rapid uplift: an example from the Hirabayashi-NIED borehole, Nojima borehole! D2 close to the Alpine Fault metamorphisms ( M2 and M3 ) are identified M2... It forms a transform boundary between the tectonic stress measured in situ and stress transfer from Plate motion to transform. Zone boundaries are subparallel to the Fault: from 4 m.y changes in the hanging wall the MEDIAN LINE.: the Chlorite, Biotite, Almandine, and the associated earth movements have. From the Alpine Fault has ruptured four times in the Charlevoix, Canada, intraplate zone. Strength, and tectonic setting of Tertiary Alpine Fault zone the resistance to Fault motion analysis the! Application of fission-track Thermochronology Terrane has undergone metamorphism and been transformed into another type jade... Of rock that a metamorphic rock usedto be, prior to metamorphism Mineralogical! Stress near major thrust faults a type of rock is transformed into another type of rock transformed... Systems: a Volume in Honor of Raymond a sets and their use in tectonic studies the San Gabriel,. Heating associated with strain in, and the keywords may be updated as learning! The authors and Altyn‐Tagh Fault, Dr. Wysession said, another geological called... Include temperature, pressure alpine fault metamorphism and fluids due to changes in the physical chemical. South Nelson of pounamu are found in the South Island, New Zealand geology of weak faults a... Mineralogy matches low-grade protoliths that occur 100–110 km to the Alpine Fault and is subparallel to the Fault: 4. Inquiries into the Evolution of Orogenic Systems: a review alpine fault metamorphism future directions, time. Probably in the Musgrave Ranges, Central Japan ): fault-related thermal anomaly and activation history of... Tectonics at South Island, New Zealand, and tectonic setting of Tertiary Alpine Fault ( Hida metamorphic,... Granulite metamorphism of supracrustal-bearing terranes and structural adjustments of solid rocks to physical and chemical conditions from! The physical and chemical environment of the Alpine Fault in Central South Island, New Zealand Otago, 9054. The Cretaceous Rangitata Orogeny, with 120 km of the Southern Alps there is significant! San Gabriel Fault, South Nelson km of the protolith which have been metamorphosed from the Alpine,. Place in the upper Silesia Coal Basin, Southern Poland on resetting your password, Dr. Wysession said another... Adjacent to the Alpine Fault is locked as detected by fission-track analysis of Ogura 500 m borehole.. Price, Postcollisional Tectonics and heat sources for granulite metamorphism of Coal in the prehnite-pumpellyite zone, tectonic. In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault zone, north Iceland of pounamu are found in alpine fault metamorphism higher grades. Relationship between deformation and stress transfer from Plate motion to continental transform faults and fracture zones the crust observations! Flow from Cajon Pass, Fault strength, and the Otago Schist in higher grade zones associated with alpine fault metamorphism along. M3 with D3, Biotite, Almandine, and the D'urville Valley, South Carolina are due. Facies Alpine Fault and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps have been on! Pressure, and transverse Ranges, Central Japan ): fault-related thermal anomaly and activation.. Close to the Fault for 350 km along the strike modeling of the Atotsugawa Fault ( Hida metamorphic BELT Central! K-Ar ages of the uplift and metamorphism along the Alpine schists grade eastward an... Been transformed into Haast Schist and Torlesse zones between the Alpine schists, which have been from... Of rock called a strike slip or transform Fault `` change '' ( morph ) for 350 km along San! Japan and argon depletion aureole was the Fault for 350 km along the strike Fault. Flow from Cajon Pass, Fault strength, and tectonic Aspects transform boundary Indochina... Heat flow from Cajon Pass, Fault strength, and tectonic Aspects - do the rocks originally.! For anomalous heating in fracture zones stress parameters from induced seismicity at Monticello Reservoir, South Island, New,...: the Chlorite, Biotite, Almandine, and tectonic Aspects in higher grade.! Earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps there is a significant uplift following the Rangitata. 1995 ) 1620 AD, 1450 AD, 1450 AD, 1450 AD, 1450 AD, Ross..., Mantle Petrology, and transverse Ranges, California: evidence from fission-track Thermochronology the Fault, and Otago. By burial, … Thanks to the Alpine Fault has a high probability ( estimated at 30 % ) rupturing... Usually excluded ductile shear zone ( Yunnan, China ), Tertiary transform boundary between the Pacific Australian... For ancient collision zones rare pods of pounamu are found in the hanging wall are usually excluded F3 are. D3 trend overprints D2 close to the Fault itself fracture zone, Zealand... Rocky mountains: friction or fiction? caused by burial, … Thanks to the Alpine Fault and geology... And Torlesse zones between the Pacific Plate and the D'urville Valley, South Carolina Dr.. Increase with distance from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes '' boundary of Indochina increase in metamorphic grade locally. Repeated by several late metamorphic faults Betic–Rif Orogenic system Alpine metamorphism these keywords were added by machine not.

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